Last Updated on February 19, 2017 by Dr.Derek Fhisher
Most popular brand: Myambutol
Active ingredient: Ethambutol
Available dosage forms: 200, 400, 600, 800 mg
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Ethambutol general information
Ethambutol can lead to vision problems that might be considered a sign that you must stop taking the medicine. Optic neuritis was described on the list of toxic effects of Ethambutol. There are many medications and toxins together with nutritional deficiencies that can make optic neuropathies, stressing the importance of taking an appropriate history and collecting an exact medication list also. There weren’t any other health issues. Ethambutol can result in serious vision difficulties or irreversible vision loss.
Ethambutol is not wise for kids under 5, due to deficiency of reliable outcomes of sight condition tests. Your child shouldn’t chew the tablet. It’s crucial that you just follow your physician’s instructions about how much to give. Call your physician for medical advice regarding side effects.
I’ve tried to discover the post and maynot. Take most of the ethambutol that’s been prescribed for you even if you start to feel better. I was warned the cultures may not show anything even following this time period. He explained he didn’t possess the energy he used to have.
The objective of this short article isn’t to criticize the health community. Patients that are too young or that are otherwise not able to comprehend this warning shouldn’t receive ethambutol. No connection was established during ethambutol administration when pregnant and fetus development anomalies. Your child may find these side-effects when they initiall begin taking ethambutol. Tell your physician in case you are breast-feeding a baby. You might not have the capacity to take ethambutol if you’re able tonot recognize or report any changes within your vision.
Ethambutol is really a bacteriostatic antimycobacterial drug which has ocular toxicity as a result of optic neuritis as the primary side effect. These events also have been reported within the absence of the diagnosis of optic or retrobulbar neuritis. Unfortunately, at the current time there’s limited data that can be found on the clinical importance of low-level ethambutol resistance.
Attempts are made to analyze the efficacy of ethambutol within the beige mouse model. Ethambutol has also been demonstrated be effective in curing drug resistant TB. Ethambutol can be found in fixed dose combinations.
There are many pathophysiological changes related to malnutrition which might affect distinctive elements of drug pharmacokinetics, it is tough to predict the result of interplay of the assorted results. Consumption of the drug marijuana and high aspirin consumption is supposed to decrease the levels too. Despite the fact that, it’s a rare incidence of severe type of toxicity of the popular drug the probable consequences might be alarming for the health care fraternity who’s rampantly utilizing this drug. The optimal clinical dose is the fact that dose which may get the EC in the vast majority of patients. An alternative drug ought to be the first approach if it’s equally powerful.
Ethambutol is utilized to treat tuberculosis (TB). Ethambutol is utilized in the inital phase of cure only. Ethambutol is among these essential medicines. Ethambutol is generally used in combined therapy with several other antibiotics, making diagnosis particularly tricky. These concentrations were chosen with the purpose to satisfy both the optimal info and also the doses employed in the clinic. This information includes only the typical doses of the medicine.
A suitable diet is the greatest treatment. There are many other treatments. Dad might well die from another infection caught within the hospital. When one or a combo seemed to cure him, he’d be away from the hospital a couple of weeks and after that back in with a different bladder infection. He Then would have 6 weeks without a treatment.
The normal antibiotics used to heal bladder infection weren’t working. The bacteria which cause TB are tough to treat. It’s also possible the bacteria will get resistant’ to (no longer be killed by) the very first medications, which means they will no longer work. An infection much like tuberculosis can happen in rather rare instances. Ethambutol eradicates certain bacteria which cause tuberculosis (TB). This medicine shouldn’t be used if you’re allergic to any of its own ingredients.
To help clear up your own tuberculosis (TB) completely, it’s quite important that you continue taking this medicine for the total time of remedy, even if you start to feel better following a few weeks. Don’t take two doses of the medication. Simply Take this medication just as instructed by your doctor. They need to continue to select the drugs daily until the doctor says to stop treatment. Each time the doctors treated with quite a few antibiotics that didn’t work. It really is given for the initial two months of the treatment course.
Optic neuropathy connected with ethambutol in Koreans. It is generally given in conjunction with other tuberculosis medications, for example isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. More than forty decades later ethambutol is still used as portion of a typical treatment regimen for TB. In case it’s almost time for the subsequent regularly scheduled dose, forget the missed dose and take the subsequent one as directed. Your personal doctor will work out the total amount of ethambutol (the dose) that suits your child.
Ethambutol: instructions for use
International and chemical name. Ethambutol; [(S, S) – N, N’- ethylene – bis – (aminobutane – 1 – ol) dihydrochloride];
Ingredients: 1 tablet contains 100 mg or 200 mg, or 400 mg ethambutol hydrochloride, calculated as 100% dry substance; excipients: calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, magnesium stearate, talc,.
Basic physical – chemical properties:
- for tablets of 200 mg, 400 mg – tablets of white color, round shape with a flat surface with beveled edges (beveled) and Valium;
- for tablets 100 mg – tablets of white color, round shape with a lenticular surface;
Ethambutol has a strong bacteriostatic action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, as well as some atypical (opportunistic, non-tuberculous) mycobacteria species. On the other pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi is not valid.
The drug inhibits the multiplication of mycobacteria resistant to streptomycin, isoniazid, PAS, ethionamide, kanamycin and other anti-TB drugs.
The mechanism of action of ethambutol after its entry into mycobacteria is associated with inhibition of the synthesis of RNA and proteins, the ability to interact with ions of divalent biometals (copper, magnesium), violation of the ribosome structure and inhibition intensity of lipid metabolism.
The primary stability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis is rare, secondary slowly. Fast tolerance develops when tuberculosis alone.
After oral absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is 80%, the rest of the dose is excreted in the feces unchanged. Food intake does not significantly affect the absorption.
When a single dose of 25 mg / kg of ethambutol maximum concentration in plasma is achieved after 4 hours and was 5 mg / ml, after 24 hours the concentration is less than 1 mcg / ml. Binding to plasma proteins is dependent on the dose and amounts to 10 – 40%.
pharmacokinetics ethambutol peculiarity is that it selectively accumulates in erythrocytes (2 times higher than the concentration in plasma).
Ethambutol distributed in most tissues, including the lungs, kidneys. Ethambutol penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid, the placenta and enters breast milk.
Ethambutol is partially metabolized in the liver to inactive dicarboxylic aldehyde and derivatives, which are excreted in the urine.
The half-life of 3 – 4 hours Write mainly with urine in unchanged form, 8 -. 15% – in the form of inactive metabolites.
The appointment of ethambutol with impaired renal function may lead to accumulation of it in the body.
Assign continuously – 1 times a day in a dose of 25 mg / kg or intermittently – in the dose of 30 – 40 mg / kg 3 times weekly.
The maximum daily dose of 2.5 g In the stabilization of tuberculosis process is prescribed at a dose of 15 mg / kg throughout the treatment period, as part of combination therapy.
The reception after the meal improves its tolerability.
The duration of treatment depends on the form of tuberculosis and from 6 to 12 months.
For children over 13 years prescribed ethambutol oral dose of 20 – 25 mg / kg per day. The maximum daily dose for children is 1.0 g.
- Aluminium hydroxide or other antacids violate ethambutol absorption from the digestive tract.
- ethambutol and pyrazinamide act synergistically in the excretion of uric acid.
- Ethambutol reduces the therapeutic efficacy of digitoxin.
- Co-administration of isoniazid ethambutol, and reduces the effectiveness of cyclosporin A.
- Ethambutol enhances the therapeutic effect of anti-TB drugs, neurotoxicity aminoglycosides, asparaginase, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, lithium salts, metrotreksata, quinine.
- In case of simultaneous treatment of disulfiram may increase ethambutol serum concentrations and increased toxicity.
- Ethanol increases the negative effect of ethambutol on eyesight, so the period of treatment should abandon admission alcohol.
Pregnancy and lactation
- Use in pregnancy is contraindicated.
- Ethambutol crosses the placental barrier, excreted in breast milk.
- In experimental studies established teratogenic effect of ethambutol.
- From the center of the nervous system. dizziness, headaches, depression, peripheral neuritis, optic neuritis, deterioration of visual acuity (reduction of the central or peripheral vision, scotoma formation), violation of color vision (mostly green, red), disorientation;
- on the part of the digestive system. nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, abnormal liver function, jaundice, increased levels of serum transaminases;
- from the bone – of the musculoskeletal system. arthritis;
- from the hematopoietic system. leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, allergic reactions, skin rash;
- Other ( are rare): interstitial nephritis, reduced clearance of uric acid, gastritis, gout attacks, increased cough, increased amounts of sputum, bleeding in the retina
- All forms of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (in combination therapy).
optic neuritis, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, inflammatory eye diseases, pregnancy, lactation, renal failure, children up to 13 years, increased sensitivity to ethambutol.
- In the beginning of treatment may be increased cough, increased amount of sputum.
- Ethambutol is used only in combination with other anti-TB drugs. When combined with isoniazid and rifampin is highly effective in the treatment of tuberculosis.
- In carrying out long-term therapy should regularly monitor the function of, a picture of peripheral blood, as well as the functional state of the liver and kidneys.
- Before and during treatment should systematically monitor visual acuity, refraction, visual field, intraocular pressure and examine the fundus. If the kidney function ophthalmologic control should be carried out every day. In the event of impairment to prevent the atrophy of the optic nerve is necessary to immediately stop the use of ethambutol. In case of violation of used hydroxocobalamin or cyanocobalamin. Vision is restored within a few weeks or even months. In some cases irreversible changes occur, leading to blindness.
- If you want to receive breast-feeding during lactation the drug should be discontinued.
- In the appointment of ethambutol in patients with gout or hyperuricemia should be careful.
Use in impaired renal function
is contraindicated in violation of renal function.
The development of neurological disorders, damage to the optic nerve (may cause blindness), loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, headache, dizziness, confusion, respiratory depression, asystole . No specific antidote.
Gastric lavage, the appointment of activated carbon should be held in the early stages due to the rapid absorption of ethambutol.
It is shown holding a forced diuresis, peritoneal dialysis.
In case of allergic reactions shows the use of desensitizing agents.
When threatening conditions necessary to carry out a blood transfusion to remove red blood cells, where ethambutol is stored.
In the reach of children, dry place at temperatures no higher than 25 ° C,.
Shelf Life – 3 years.
Conditions of supply: Prescription
- 10 tablets in blisters, for 5 or 10 outline packages in a pack;
- 100 tablets in banks;
- 100 tablets in a jar, and 1 bank in the pack;
- 1000 tablets in plastic containers.