Last Updated on February 19, 2017 by Dr.Derek Fhisher
Most popular brand: Uniphyl Cr
Active ingredient: Theophylline
Available dosage forms: 400 mg
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Theophylline general information
Theophylline may make some folks feel dizzy. If you begin taking an alternate brand to the one you normally have, you may well be getting too much or very little theophylline. It is necessary not to switch brands of theophylline minus the advice of your physician as your own dose may have to be adjusted. This is due to the fact that the quantity of theophylline absorbed by your own body varies greatly between brands.
Should you be currently using such a medicine, tell your physician or pharmacist before starting theophylline. Ask your pharmacist the best way to take the particular type of theophylline that you’re using. Don’t stop taking theophylline without speaking to your doctor. Take theophylline completely as directed.
Tell your physician in case you are pregnant or intend on becoming pregnant during treatment. Be certain your doctor and lab personnel know that you are taking Quibron-T. Keep taking theophylline even should you feel well. To assist you remember, take it at the exact same times every day.
If you’re pregnant, breast-feeding, or designing to find pregnant, don’t use any medicines unless your physician tells you to. Nonetheless, in case you are breastfeeding your child, you ought ton’t take theophylline unless the possible benefits outweigh the risks, then only under the guidance of your physician. Discuss any feasible risks to your own baby.
Taking medicine as your own doctor suggests will boost your health and can prevent future troubles. Inform your doctor if another doctor prescribes a brand new medicine or orders you to stop utilizing a medicine that you’ve already been taking. Make certain your doctor knows about the rest of the medicines you’re using. Some medicines aren’t suitable for those who have certain circumstances, and at times a medicine may just be used if extra care is taken.
There are lots of different medicines that could interfere with theophylline. Slow-release theophylline has an even increased danger of causing unwanted side effects compared to the short-acting medicine. Your dose will likely be adjusted founded on the quantity of theophylline within the blood. Give theophylline completely as instructed by your veterinarian.
Theophylline is a type of asthma drug that is only watered down. Caffeine withdrawal is really a syndrome. Due to the diuretic properties, caffeine might help lower the danger of bladder cancer. In certain patients, caffeine is connected with temporary rises in blood pressure, so people who have high blood pressure may be advised to prevent caffeine during high-stress times.
You may secure a couple of days of headache and irritability if you decide to quit drinking coffee, notwithstanding, it is relatively simple to break this habit, and many individuals aren’t hooked on caffeine. Consequently, your asthma becomes less severe and you’re not as possible to find asthma attacks. Make certain to work with your physician to get the best treatment for your own asthma. In addition, There are significant variations in the range of coffee or tea and also the brewing method used.
Several drugs are utilized in the little variety of patients who r reply to the measures of lifestyle. For severe attacks, your own doctor might also use steroids to cure the inflammation. As time passes, your own doctor may have to make changes within your asthma medication. You might need to lift your dose, reduce your dose, or try a mix of medications.
Theophylline (Theophylline): instruction, and the use of a formula
The nosological classification (ICD – 10)
Feature substance Theophylline
The white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in cold water (1: 180), easily ; hot (1:85), soluble in acids and alkalis. Molecular weight 180,17.
Mode of action -. Antispasmodic, bronchodilator, anti-asthmatic, vasodilatory, cardiotonic, diuretic
Associates adenosine receptors. Blocks as phosphodiesterase cAMP stabilizes and reduces the concentration of intracellular calcium. Relaxes the smooth muscles of inner organs (bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and the uterus), suppresses degranulation of mast cells and reduces the level of mediators of allergy (serotonin, histamine, etc.) In the blood (anti-allergic effect). It improves the tone of respiratory muscles (intercostal muscles and diaphragm); It dilates blood vessels of the lungs and improves the oxygenation of the blood; inhibits platelet aggregation (inhibits platelet activating factor and PGF 2alpha ), increases the resistance to deformation of the red blood cells (improves blood rheology), reduces blood clots and normalize microcirculation. Antianginal effect (an increase in oxygen delivery to the myocardium) due to the expansion of the coronary arteries.
Once inside completely absorbed (bioavailability 90%). C max is achieved in the blood for 2 hours (normal form) and 6 hours (prolonged form). In the blood of 40 – 60% protein bound. It penetrates through the blood-tissue barriers. Treated biotransformation in the liver to inactive metabolites. Excreted mainly kidneys (up to 13% in adults and 50% children ; in unmodified form); partly excreted in breast milk.
Application of the substance Theophylline
Bronchial asthma, asthmatic status, obstructive bronchitis, emphysema, sleep apnea.
Hypersensitivity, including other xanthine derivatives (caffeine, pentoxifylline, theobromine), hemorrhagic stroke, bleeding in the retina of the eye, acute myocardial infarction, the expressed atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, bleeding in the recent history.
Epilepsy, stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastritis with high acidity, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. severe arterial hyper – or hypotension, severe tachyarrhythmia.
Severe coronary insufficiency (unstable angina), widespread atherosclerosis, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, frequent ventricular premature beats, congestive heart failure, increased convulsive readiness, porphyria, stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer in the anamnesis, uncontrolled hypothyroidism (possibility of cumulation) or hyperthyroidism , prolonged pyrexia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, prostatic hypertrophy, liver and / or kidney failure, pregnancy, lactation, old age (over 60 years), children’s age.
Application of pregnancy and breastfeeding
Category effects on the fetus by FDA ; C.
Pregnancy. Theophylline crosses the placenta, pregnant women can use it only in cases where the expected benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. In the I trimester and in the last weeks of pregnancy – only under strict indications.
It was reported that theophylline clearance in the III trimester of pregnancy is reduced, which may require more frequent determination of theophylline concentration in the blood and may reduce the dose.
Theophylline no teratogenic action when orally administered to mice in doses of 400 mg / kg and rats at doses of 260 mg / kg (higher than the recommended human dose in mg / m 2, about 2 or 3 times, respectively). Rats treated with theophylline at a dose of 220 mg / kg, there was no embryotoxic effect in toxic effects in females.
Breastfeeding. Theophylline is excreted into breast milk and may cause irritability or other signs of toxicity in infants who are breastfed. The concentration of theophylline in human milk is approximately equivalent to its concentration in the maternal serum.
delivery. is shown that theophylline significantly inhibits uterine contractions.
Side effects of substance Theophylline
Anxiety, impaired consciousness, seizures, visual disturbances, scotoma, angina, arrhythmia, tachycardia, hypotension, laryngitis, sore throat, flu-like symptoms, nasal congestion, dry mouth, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, aggravation of cholecystitis, cholestatic hepatitis, increased concentration of liver enzymes (AST. ALT. ALP. LDH), atonic bowel, leukopenia, gipofibrinogenemia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, allergic reactions.
cimetidine, allopurinol, cyclosporine, macrolide antibiotics, oral contraceptives, anti-flu serum, a diet low in protein and high ; carbohydrates ; reduce the clearance and increase the risk of side effects.
phenobarbital, phenytoin, xanthines, smoking ; accelerate biotransformation (induce hepatic microsomal enzymes). Beta – blockers reduce the bronchodilator activity. Adsorbents, coating agents, antacids, oxidants slow down the absorption and reducyruut C max . and alkalizing agent ; increase. It enhances the effects of diuretics, reduces ; NSAIDs (from the group of pyrazolone), beta – blockers, probenecid.
Theophylline interacts with many drugs. The reaction can be pharmacodynamic, thereby altering the therapeutic effects of theophylline or other drugs. or side effects occur without changing the concentration of theophylline in blood. More often, however, there is a pharmacokinetic interaction – change of theophylline clearance in the combined use with other medicinal products and, accordingly, increase or decrease in serum concentrations of theophylline. Theophylline is rarely alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs.
If theophylline is administered to a patient already receiving a drug that inhibits theophylline clearance (eg, cimetidine, erythromycin), the dose of theophylline required to achieve therapeutic serum concentrations of theophylline should be reduced. Conversely, if theophylline is beginning to take a patient who is already taking a drug that increases theophylline clearance (eg, rifampin), the dose of theophylline required to achieve therapeutic concentrations of theophylline in serum should be more.
Ending receiving concomitant drugs. which increases the clearance of theophylline may lead to accumulation of theophylline to potentially toxic levels. Stopping the use of concomitant drugs. which reduces the clearance of theophylline,
Changes in clearance of 25% may reduce the concentration of theophylline in serum. or more may be clinically significant. At the commencement or termination of application simultaneously with theophylline drugs recommended measuring theophylline concentration in blood and, if necessary, the adjustment of the dose.
Symptoms: agitation, confusion, convulsions, tachycardia, arrhythmia, hypotension, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting with blood, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis.
Treatment: the appointment of activated charcoal, bowel irrigation is a combination of polyethylene glycol and salt; with severe nausea and vomiting ; metoclopramide, or ondansetron (w / w), cramps ; benzodiazepines, phenobarbital (or sodium thiopental) and peripheral muscle relaxants; if necessary ; hemoperfusion.
Dosing and Administration
Inside. Dosage individual, depending on the nature of the disease, age and body weight. Adults (neretardnye form) – 0.1-0.2 g 2-4 times a day. Higher-time and daily doses are 0.4 and 1.2 g, respectively.
Precautions substance Theophylline
Treatment of retard forms produced during periodic monitoring (should not exceed 20 mg / mL) concentrations of drug in the blood.