Last Updated on February 19, 2017 by Dr.Derek Fhisher
Most popular brand: Xalatan 0.005%
Active ingredient: Latanoprost
Available dosage forms: 2,5 ml
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Latanoprost general information
Latanoprost controls glaucoma but doesn’t cure it. Latanoprost ophthalmic may include a preservative that may discolor soft contact lenses. Use latanoprost completely as directed. It is vital that you keep on using latanoprost even should you feel well.
As spironolactone is just a diuretic, it raises the quantity of water loss through urine alongside sodium. Aspirin could also decrease the results of spironolactone. Latanoprost eye drops are offered as bottles of eye drops which include a preservative, as well as as single-dose units which don’t include a preservative. It also ought to be non-invasive, simple to administer and relatively inexpensive.
Migraine headaches may be dull or severe. Many tension sort of headaches, aside from causing headache too can provide a slight stuffy or runny nose. There are a number of factors behind migraines. Tinnitus comes in various forms.
Alcohol intake isn’t known to affect latanoprost. 2 receptors, which then helps to lessen heartbeat rate and reduced blood pressure. Most likely, the physician will suggest gradual decrease in the dosage intake to stop any withdrawal symptoms. Some side effects may happen that usually don’t need medical attention.
Only a little on your own cat’s tongue, along with the cure has begun. It’s significant you do not utilize latanoprost eye drops more than once per day. Don’t forget to use it at precisely the same time daily.
Pay a Visit to your prescriber or doctor for regular eye pressure exams. Call your physician for medical advice regarding side effects. It generally does not spend the place of speaking to your doctor or pharmacist. So as to prevent such unpredictable cases, it is constantly recommended to consult and seek advice from an experienced physician before and after taking the medications.
Large blood pressure may be a serious medical condition and certainly will be the underlying cause of one of the kinds of tinnitus that’s called pulsatile tinnitus. It’s the belief a small super-charged quantity of a very natural substance that leads to illness can cure the exact same illness when prepared in a particular way. A change within the medication can settle the issue also. Nonetheless, they’re independent from one another as well as their causes and the noises the patient hears are different.
Don’t stop using latanoprost without speaking to your doctor. Practice the directions on your own prescription label thoroughly and ask your personal doctor or pharmacist to clearly explain any part that you do not understand. In This manner, not only does the body acquire an opportunity to be off any laxative for sometime, however an individual doesn’t begin to acquire related to triphala psychologically. Wash hands before as well as after use.
Despite its potential for healing various health conditions, there are particular side effects and a few precautions ought to be taken before its usage. Proper treatment is vital to get fast relief from this eye stye. While sinusitis headache can endure for days or weeks till it’s treated with the proper medications. With a few medications and way of life changes, you’re going to be able enough to treat and control the problem.
Latanoprost is used to take care of selected types of glaucoma. Spironolactone is used for remedying hormonal acne breakout also. In the event, you detect lumps inside your body, then consult with a physician with no delay because this medicine can cause tumors within the body. Additionally, stopping the drug abruptly causes a series of medical issues.
Description of the active substance Latanoprost / Latanoprostum.
formula: C26H40O5, chemical name: isopropyl – (Z) – 7 [(1R, 2R, 3R, 5S) 3,5 – dihydroxy – 2 – [(3R) – 3 – hydroxy – 5 – phenylpentyl] cyclopentyl] – 5 – geptenoat
Pharmacological group: Organotropona funds / ophthalmic means;
intermedianty / prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes and their antagonists
Mode of action: antiglaucoma.
Latanoprost is a selective agonist of prostanoid FP – receptors, prostaglandin analog F2alfa. Latanoprost reduces intraocular pressure by increasing the outflow (mainly uveoscleral less through the trabecular meshwork) aqueous humor. Latanoprost has no significant effect on blood aqueous barrier and the formation of aqueous humor. When used in the recommended doses, the drug significant pharmacological effects on respiratory and cardio – vascular system does not have
Latanoprost may gradually change eye color by increasing the content of the pigment in the iris brown, due to growth in the number of pigment granules (melanosmy) in melanocytes of the iris stroma. . Brown pigmentation around the pupil that is normally distributed to the periphery of the iris of the affected eye, but possibly a solid brown color of part or all of the iris. During the use of latanoprost on the iris may increase the severity of freckles. The colors of the iris changes slowly, this process may not be noticeable for several months or even years. A more pronounced pigmentation of the iris can be in patients with yellow – brown, blue – / gray – brown or green – brown eye color. After the cessation of treatment the brown coloration of the iris is not progressing (in clinical trials), but may be irreversible. Action on the deposition of pigment granules and / or melanocytes in other parts of the eye with prolonged use of latanoprost in the do not know the present. Latanoprost may gradually change eyelashes and vellus hair, and also cause darkening of the skin age. When using the drug was observed violation of the right direction of growth of eyelashes, increasing the thickness, length and pigmentation of the eyelashes (these changes can be irreversible). The action of latanoprost on the corneal endothelium during prolonged use has been insufficiently studied. Data from the randomized, multicenter, controlled studies have shown that in patients with primary intraocular pressure of 24 – 25 mm Hg who received latanoprost for six months, it was reduced by 6 – 8 mmHg Reducing the intraocular pressure begins within 3 – 4 hours after instillation of the preparation, the effect becomes maximum after 8 – 12 hours and lasts for at least a day. No significant differences in the efficacy and safety of latanoprost in older and younger patients have been identified.
When latanoprost instillation absorbed through the cornea where the cornea hydrolysis by esterases prodrugs (isopropyl ether) to acid, which has biological activity. After 2 hours after the use of latanoprost reached peak concentration in the aqueous humor. The volume of distribution is equal to 0.16 ± 0.02 L / kg. In the intraocular fluid latanoprost acid is determined during the first 4 hours Serum – only in the first hour in the topical use. Acid latanoprost reaching the systemic circulation, it undergoes hepatic metabolism by beta – oxidation to 1,2,3,4 – tetranor and 1.2 – Dinorah – metabolites. The half-life of blood serum latanoprost acid by intravenous administration and local instillation is 17 minutes. Latanoprost systemic clearance is approximately 7 mL / min / kg. Drug metabolites are excreted mainly kidneys displayed approximately 98% and 88% of the administered dose in the urine are determined by intravenous and topical administration respectively
Exposure latanoprost about 2 times greater in patients 3 -. 12 as compared with older patients and 6-fold higher in children under 3 years. But latanoprost safety profile did not differ for adults and children. The maximum concentration of latanoprost acid in blood serum obtained after 5 minutes in patients of all age groups. The half-life of the drug in children and adults the same. Cumulation of latanoprost acid in the blood plasma in the equilibrium concentration does not occur.
The mutagenic properties of latanoprost have been identified in mouse lymphoma cells in the research cultures of bacteria and micronucleus test in mice. In in vitro studies on human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration have been noted. Carcinogenic properties have been identified in studies in rats and mice that received the drug orally at a dose up to 170 mg / kg per day (approximately 2800 times more than the recommended dose for humans) for up to 24 and 20 months respectively. Additional studies in rats in vivo and in vitro showed no unscheduled DNA synthesis. The study of the drug on fertility changes in male and female animals have not been revealed.
In the study of increased pigmentation of the iris was obtained in monkeys, which is associated with the stimulation of melanin production in melanocytes of the iris stroma, and not with the proliferation of melanocytes. Latanoprost ophthalmic toxicity study in monkeys was administered at a dose of 6 mg / eye per day (4 times daily human dose), and increased eye opening. This effect occurs above the standard therapeutic doses and was reversible.
Increased intraocular pressure, open-angle glaucoma.
How to use and dose of latanoprost
Instillation is performed 1 time per day in the evening and 1 drop (1.5 micrograms) into the affected eye.
If you forget one dose, the next dose you must enter at the usual time.
Do not use more often than latanoprost once a day, because the frequent administration of therapeutic effect may decrease. With the development of any adverse reactions on the part of the eye (the change of century, conjunctivitis, etc.) should immediately consult a doctor. The development of bacterial keratitis associated with the presence in many cases damage the eyeball epithelium and comorbidity eyes, as well as with the use of multidose vials ophthalmic preparations (contents of an open bottle sterility does not save). When intercurrent pathology of the eye (infection, trauma, and the like) or surgical intervention on the eyeball is an urgent need to consult a doctor about the use of ophthalmic preparations in multidose vials (possible contamination with pathogenic flora of the vial contents).
Before treatment is necessary to inform the patient about the possible irreversible change in eye color (especially in the treatment of only one eye, may develop irreversible when heterochromia), darkening of the eyelid skin, changing the thickness, length, number, color vellus hair and eyelashes, changing the direction of eyelash growth. It is necessary to conduct regular eye examination. . Treatment may be discontinued at enhancing pigmentation
Before instillation of the drug is necessary to remove contact lenses (as in solution preparation contains benzalkonium chloride, which can be adsorbed on the lenses); worn lenses 15 minutes after instillation. The use of latanoprost is contraindicated in patients who have a hypersensitivity to benzalkonium chloride and other auxiliary components of the preparation.
With careful use of latanoprost drivers of vehicles and people whose occupations are associated with high concentration of attention and speed of psychomotor reactions.
Hypersensitivity, up to 1 year (safety and efficacy not established).
Restrictions on the use
The active inflammatory process in the eyeball (uveitis, iritis), psevdoafakiya with damage to the lens capsule, aphakia, conditions that are accompanied by the risk of macular edema, wearing contact lenses, angle-closure glaucoma with symptoms of neovascularization or inflammation, the active form of herpetic keratitis, recurrent herpetic keratitis, kidney damage and liver, planned surgery for cataract, children’s age (efficacy and safety of use are not installed).
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
When pregnancy latanoprost should be used with caution, only if the expected benefit to the mother more than the possible risk to the fetus. latanoprost reproduction action studies were performed on rabbits and rats. Four out of sixteen female rabbits that received latanoprost at a dose approximately 80 times the maximum recommended human dose, viable fruit in the uterus were not determined; dose, which does not embriotsidnogo effect in rabbits was 15 maximum recommended doses for humans. Controlled adequate studies have been conducted in pregnant women. Data on the allocation of latanoprost or its metabolites in breast milk are not available. Since many drugs penetrate into breast milk, it must be used with caution latanoprost lactating women.
Side effects of latanoprost
The body of: Eye irritation (a feeling of sand in the eyes, burning sensation, itching, foreign body sensation, tingling), conjunctival hyperemia, blepharitis, increased pigmentation of the iris, eye pain, transient point erosion of the epithelium cornea, periorbital edema, conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, corneal edema and erosions; thickening, lengthening, increasing the number and increased pigmentation of vellus hair and eyelashes; iritis, keratitis, uveitis; macular edema, including cystoid; growth of eyelashes on a number of additional meibomian gland; change of direction of growth of eyelashes, sometimes with irritation of the eyes; changes in the lashes, and periorbital area, which leads to a deepening of the upper lid groove; photophobia, blurred vision, dry eye irritation, xerophthalmia, crust on the eyelids, excessive tearing, pain / discomfort in the eyelids, discharge from the eye, double vision, retinal detachment, retinal artery embolism, vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy; calcification of the cornea, herpetic keratitis
Skin:. darkening of the skin of eyelids and local skin reaction on the eyelids, rash, allergic skin reactions, toxic epidermal necrolysis
The nervous system.: headache, dizziness
respiratory:. dyspnea, bronchospasm (including acute attacks or exacerbations in patients with bronchial asthma in history), upper respiratory tract infections, colds, flu , dyspnea, nasopharyngitis
Other:. chest pain, muscle pain, joint pain, angina, fever.
latanoprost Interaction with other substances
Latanoprost with Thimerosal pharmaceutically compatible (perhaps the precipitation, so between the use of drugs should be an interval not less than 5 minutes). Latanoprost may be used together with other drugs that lower the intraocular pressure (but in this case should be an interval not less than 5 minutes). When combined instillation into the eyes of two prostaglandin analogues described paradoxical increase in intraocular pressure, therefore, the simultaneous use of two or more prostaglandins, their derivatives or analogues is not recommended. Latanoprost has an additive effect for lowering the intraocular pressure when it is used together with inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase.
If overdose with latanoprost eye irritation develops, episcleral or conjunctival hyperemia. Intravenous administration of high doses of the drug to monkeys resulted in the development of transient bronchoconstriction, but use of the drug in 11 patients with asthma not induced bronchospasm. Intravenous administration of the drug to healthy people at a dose of 3 mg / kg, which is provided above average drug plasma levels up to 200 times as compared with the recommended dose, did not cause any side effects. Intravenous administration of latanoprost at a dose of 5.5 – 10 mg / kg resulted in dizziness, abdominal pain, fatigue, nausea, hot flushes, sweating. It should be symptomatic treatment.