Last Updated on February 19, 2017 by Dr.Derek Fhisher
Most popular brand: Cleocin
Active ingredient: Clindamycin
Available dosage forms: 150, 300 mg
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Clindamycin general information
Serious side effects are reported with clindamycin. Patients taking barbiturates may demand a greater dosage of metronidazole. Always finish the complete course, even should you feel better.
Experimentally, laser ablation could be useful in a few patients. Intrathecal immunoglobulin is, in addition, considered along with metronidazole. It’s been shown however, the intensity of the dentally-induced bacteraemia can be lessened by prophylactic doses of antimicrobials. Clavulanate could be this kind of probable drug which can be used along with amoxicillin. From time to time, pus-like fluid can come out from the entire skin too. It causes inflammation within the parotid glands.
A glycerin-sorbitol combination is utilized to make soaps also. Not to mention, wear tidy, fresh clothes. Have a dose after you remember. Just Take the missed dose when you remember it. It is possible to take clindamycin before or following food. You must start to feel better during the very first few days of cure with clindamycin.
Colitis doesn’t always happen immediately. The Veterinarian will have the knowledge of what to do. This results within the formation of the sty or possibly a pustule-like inflammation within the eye. Clinical manifestations are exactly the same as the ones encountered with beta-lactams. Adults with osteomyelitis can likewise experience back pain.
Injectable clindamycin does not lead to GI distress. Take clindamycin completely as directed. She had received clindamycin for this similar problem repeatedly previously without complications.
PN isn’t easy to treat. Give the missed dose after you remember. Give the dose as quickly as possible. After each week, however, serum AST levels started to rise. Growth is not easy, but worth it.
Vaccination for Staph infection hasn’t been developed. Cross sensitivity was reported between clindamycin and also the penicillins and future usage of related antibiotics need to be done with care. Tetanus toxoid is provided in patient who’s previously immunized.
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I’m getting better daily. Autoantibodies are usually not present. There are numerous reasons for this. There are lots of cases where Babesia is the sole culprit available. The foremost thing to execute is summon medical assistance, since it’s impossible to self-treat a snakebite. Copperhead snakes are observed across America, with higher numbers within the southeast.
This continued via the night and the following moment. Sometimes, papillae might acquire enlarged. The area then heals by itself. It is desirable to rest and keep warm at the moment. Look after that bruise and maintain your surroundings clean. This method is simpler and not as painful than cauterization.
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Description of the active ingredient Clindamycin / Clindamycin.
Formula: C18H33ClN2O5S, chemical name: (2S – trans) – Methyl – 7 – chloro – 6,7,8 – trideoxy – 6 [[(1 – methyl – 4 – propyl – 2 – pyrrolidinyl) carbonyl] amino] – 1 – thio – L – threo – alpha – D – galacto – oktopiranozid (as hydrochloride, phosphate or palmitate hydrochloride)
Pharmacological group: Antimicrobials,. . antiparasitic, and sedative / antibiotics / lincosamides
Mode of action: protivoprotozoynoe, antibacterial.
Clindamycin by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome inhibits microbial cells of the microorganism protein formation. Clindamycin bacteriostatic effect, and higher concentrations can be highly bactericidal effect against microorganisms. After oral administration, the drug is well and rapidly absorbed, bioavailability of 90%, slows the absorption of food, but does not alter the extent of absorption. With the protein binds to 92-94%. Clindamycin is easily passes into the tissues, organs, body fluids, including tonsils, bone and muscle tissue, bronchus, pleura, lung, pleural fluid, appendix, biliary ducts, the fallopian tubes, prostate, synovial fluid, sputum, saliva, secretions wounds. Poorly penetrates the blood brain barrier, but the inflammation of the meninges permeability increases. The volume of distribution in children are 0.86 l / kg in adults is approximately 0.66 l / kg. Clindamycin is well and rapidly crosses the placenta and is found in fetal blood, as the drug enters and passes into breast milk. The maximum concentration after oral administration of serum is reached after about 0.75-1 hours, when administered intramuscularly every 1 hour in children over 3 hours in adults when administered intravenously -. The end of the infusion
Clindamycin is metabolized in the liver with the formation of active (klindamitsinsulfoksid and N – dimetilklindamitsin) and inactive metabolites. Within 4 days and excreted by the kidneys intestine essentially as inactive metabolites. half-time during normal operation of the kidneys in children is 2.5 – 3 hours in adults is 2.4-3 hours in preterm infants – 6,3-8,6 hours. In severe violation of the liver or end-stage renal excretion of clindamycin slowing. The body accumulates clindamycin is not.
Topical clindamycin may cause systemic effects. In vitro sensitive to clindamycin such microorganisms: Aerobic Gram-positive cocci, including Pneumococcus spp. Staphylococcus epidermidis (including those strains that both produce and do not produce penicillinase), Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. (Except Streptococcus faecalis); anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, including Fusobacterium spp. Bacteroides spp. (Including B. Melaninogenicus group and group B. fragilis); anaerobic gram-positive bacillus, which do not form spores, including Propionibacterium spp. Actinomyces spp. Eubacterium spp .; microaerophilic and anaerobic gram-positive cocci including Peptococcus spp. Microaerophilic Streptococcus spp. Peptostreptococcus spp. Clostridia spp. Most Clostridium perfringens are susceptible to clindamycin, but some species, such as C. Tertium and C. sporogenes, frequently resistant to clindamycin, so prior to treatment is to conduct tests for susceptibility to clindamycin. In large doses, clindamycin acts on some of the simplest (eg, Plasmodium falciparum). There is cross-resistance between clindamycin and lincomycin, and the antagonism between erythromycin and clindamycin. In vitro clindamycin is active against many strains of microorganisms which cause bacterial vaginosis: Mobiluncus spp. Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Peptostreptococcus spp. Bacteroides spp. Clindamycin for intravaginal use is ineffective for the treatment of vulvovaginal, which is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or the virus Herpes simplex. Anti-acne effect in outdoor use is likely possible by the fact that clindamycin content reduces the skin of free fatty acids, and also inhibits the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes – microorganism which is found in the follicles and sebaceous glands
in rats and. mice showed no mutagenic and teratogenic effects of clindamycin, and there was no evidence of its effect on fertility. Long-term studies on the possible carcinogenic clindamycin were not carried out.
System use: infectious diseases, which are caused by susceptible microorganisms: respiratory infections (pneumonia, including aspiration, bronchitis, lung abscess, fibrosing alveolitis, empyema), ENT infections – bodies (including pharyngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media), infections of the joints and bones (septic arthritis, osteomyelitis), purulent soft tissue infections, and skin (including acne, phlegmon, boils, impetigo, infected wounds, felon, abscesses, erysipelas), septicemia ( mostly anaerobic), intra-abdominal infections and infections of the pelvic organs (including peritonitis, abscesses of abdominal organs, only when sharing drugs that are active against gram-negative aerobic microorganisms), mouth infections (including periodontal abscess), gynecological diseases (including and endometritis, abscess of the fallopian ovarian tubes, adnexitis, pelvioperitonit, salpingitis), tropical malaria (which is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, and resistant to chloroquine without or in combination with quinine), Toxoplasma encephalitis, sepsis, Pneumocystis pneumonia (caused by Pneumocystis carinii), scarlet fever, bacterial endocarditis, diphtheria
intravaginal use:. vaginosis, which is caused by pathogens susceptible to clindamycin
External application (gel):. acne
How to use clindamycin and a dose
The duration of therapy and dosing regimen set individually, taking into account indications, susceptibility, severity of infection. Inside (regardless of the meal), adults – every 6 – 8 hours 150-450 mg, for children 3 – 4 doses of 8-25 mg / kg / day. Intravenously or intramuscularly 2 times per day to 300 mg, in severe infections – up to 1,2-4,8 g / day (2-4 in the introduction), children – 10-40 mg / kg / day (3-4 introduction ). Topical 2 times a day a thin layer of gel is applied to clean, dry skin lesion area. Intravaginal 3 -.. 7 days of 100 mg at night
When you pass another receiving clindamycin remember how to do this, the following method through produce a set time of last use of
In case of a hypersensitivity reaction must stop treatment clindamycin. Antibacterial agents inhibit the normal intestinal flora, it may contribute to the increased proliferation of clostridia. Pseudomembranous colitis of varying severity, even life-threatening, have been observed with the use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin. Colitis, diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur when receiving clindamycin, and 3 weeks after treatment discontinuation. If pseudomembranous colitis appear diarrhea, leukocytosis, fever, abdominal pain, can be released with fecal blood. Therefore, consider this diagnosis in all cases is the appearance of diarrhea during and after administration of antibacterial agents. It must be remembered that the application of local forms of the drug may develop systemic effects (including pseudomembranous colitis). In patients older than 60 years of colitis and diarrhea in patients receiving clindamycin are developing more and more severe. If you are using clindamycin possible overgrowth of microorganisms that are insensitive to it, in particular yeasts. When superinfection necessary depending on the clinical situation to take appropriate action. When using high doses necessary to monitor the levels of clindamycin in the plasma. When therapy is carried out for a long period of time, it is necessary to regularly monitor the work of the kidneys and liver. Prior to vaginal suppositories or cream by using laboratory methods should be excluded Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis. Virus Herpes simplex, Candida albicans, which often cause vulvovaginitis. Sharing or vaginal suppositories and vaginal creams with other drugs are not allowed. In the treatment of patients is not recommended to have sexual intercourse (also not recommended to use a vaginal contraceptive diaphragms or condoms, as a cream or suppositories components reduce the strength of the product and latex rubber). Also, do not use the product for intravaginal administration (eg, tampons). For external use the gel to avoid its contact with the mucous membrane of the mouth and eyes. It is good to wash your hands after applying the gel to the skin. The event of accidental contact with sensitive surfaces, it is necessary to rinse with cool water this area. Gel for external use should not be used in conjunction with agents that cause peeling and peeling of the skin with disinfectants or soaps that contain abrasives as possible to develop cumulative irritating or drying effect and excessive skin irritation. When treatment must be careful when using the drivers and people whose occupations are associated with a high concentration of attention.
Hypersensitivity (including to lincomycin), a history of regional enteritis, antibiotic – associated colitis, or ulcerative colitis.
Restrictions on the use
Myasthenia expressed disorders of the kidneys and / or liver, age 1 month to use the gel – up to age 12 years (effectiveness and safety have not been identified).
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
During pregnancy, the use of clindamycin may, if the effect of the treatment of higher potential risk to the fetus (adequate and strictly controlled studies in pregnant women have not been conducted). When clindamycin treatment should abandon breastfeeding.
Side effects of clindamycin
Systemic effects – Nervous System: a violation of neuro – muscular conductivity; Digestive system: abdominal pain, oesophagitis, pseudomembranous colitis, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice, goiter, liver malfunction, hyperbilirubinemia, metallic or bad taste in the mouth;
the circulatory system and blood: passing eosinophilia and neutropenia (or leukopenia), thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, with the rapid introduction intravenously – cardio – vascular insufficiency (heart failure, collapse), hypotension;
allergic reactions: maculopapular rash, generalized morbilliform rash of varying severity, pruritus, urticaria, rarely – vesicles – bullous and exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, anaphylactoid reactions;
other: azotemia, proteinemiya and / or oliguria, the development of superinfection, polyarthritis; reactions at the injection site – seal, pain, abscess (when administered by intramuscular injection), thrombophlebitis (when administered intravenously)
When intravaginal application, cream: urogenital system: cervicitis / vaginitis, vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, menstrual disorders, pain in the vagina, uterine bleeding, vaginal discharge, dysuria, abnormal labor, urinary tract infection, endometriosis, proteinuria, glycosuria; nervous system: dizziness, vertigo, headache;
total system: bacterial and fungal infections, back pain, generalized pain, inflammatory edema; Digestive system: nausea, heartburn, vomiting, constipation / diarrhea, indigestion, bad breath, flatulence, abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, abdominal pain;
Other: candidiasis deviation the results of microbiological tests from the norm, taste perversion, hyperthyroidism, nosebleeds, hives, rash;
candle: urogenital system: irritation of the vagina and vulva, pain during vagina, vaginal infections, vaginal candidiasis, vaginal discharge, menstrual disorders, pyelonephritis, dysuria;
overall system: fever, fungal infection, generalized pain, flank pain, headache; Digestive system: nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps;
skin: itching, pain, and itching at the injection site, rash
For external use. (gel): irritation and dryness of the skin (in the place of use), contact dermatitis, folliculitis, burning sensation in the eyes, increasing the function of the sebaceous glands; when systemic absorption possible disruption of the gastro – intestinal tract (mild diarrhea, abdominal pain), rarely – pseudomembranous colitis.
clindamycin Interaction with other substances
Clindamycin incompatible with magnesium sulfate, calcium gluconate, aminophylline, barbiturates, ampicillin, phenytoin, aminoglycosides, solutions which contain complex vitamins B. In vitro antagonism was shown with chloramphenicol clindamycin and erythromycin. Since clindamycin violates neuro – muscular transmission, it may increase the effects of peripheral muscle relaxants. When combined with clindamycin opioid analgesics may increase the respiratory depression and even the development of sleep apnea. The combined use of clindamycin with antidiarrheal drugs reduces gastrointestinal motility – intestinal tract, and it raises the possibility of pseudomembranous colitis.
In case of overdose amplified clindamycin side effects. It should be symptomatic and supportive treatment. Hemodialysis is not effective.
Trading names of drugs with working substance clindamycin
Dalatsin® Dalatsin® C phosphate