Last Updated on February 19, 2017 by Dr.Derek Fhisher
Most popular brand: Dilantin
Active ingredient: Phenytoin
Available dosage forms: 100 mg
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Phenytoin general information
There’s no FDA guidance on using Phenazopyridine related to geriatric patients. There’s no FDA guidance on the application of Phenazopyridine connected to specific gender populations. There’s no FDA guidance on the application of Phenazopyridine connected to specific racial populations. If your physician will not do so, you may want to request a prescription, particularly if you have a prescription plan where you could get it for free.
Tell your physician or physician in the event your symptoms usually do not improve or if they get worse. It’s likewise crucial info to carry together with you in case of emergencies. Perhaps It does not cover all potential information. It’ll be understood by those skilled within the art the preferred route of administration will depend upon the status being treated and could vary with factors like the state of the recipient.
Speak to your pharmacist about the appropriate disposal of your own medication. This medication really should not be used in case you have certain health conditions. This medication is not wise for use when pregnant. This medicine might stain soft contact lenses.
Even though the precise mechanism of action for phenazopyridine is unknown, it is really a medication which has been used for a lot of years to supply relief from urinary pain and discomfort. Patients electing to work with urinary tract analgesics ought to be counseled on the advised dosage and length of use, in addition to the possible adverse effects that might occur. It is essential for patients to be advised that phenazopyridine will not treat a UTI but only functions as an analgesic and they ought to consult their primary doctor for additional evaluation and treatment. Phenazopyridine might cause unwanted side effects.
Call your physician for medical advice regarding side effects. Simply Take any antibiotic your doctor prescribes to see to your infection. Throw out any unused medicine following the expiration date. When it is almost time for your subsequent dose, take just that dose.
Your prescription is most likely not refillable. Some items might interact with your medicine. Don’t take your medicine more frequently than directed. Don’t skip doses or quit your medicine early even should you feel better.
The over-the-counter form is utilized to relieve urinary tract malady, burning, irritation, and discomfort, and urgent and frequent urination due to urinary tract infections. This drug doesn’t care for the reason for the urinary irritation, but it might help alleviate the symptoms while other treatments take effect. No, Phenazopyridine isn’t known to eventually become toxic, once expired, notwithstanding it does start to reduce potency, as do all medications.
Take phenazopyridine completely as directed. Pyridium may cause you to get dizzy. The blister pack or alternative combination package might also incorporate a 2nd pharmaceutical item. Therefore, it would be better to obtain an extra supply.
Hydroxylation is the primary type of metabolism in humans, and also the azo bond is regularly not cleaved. Phenazopyridine is utilized to treat malady, burning, increased urination, and raised urge to urinate. The acid will raise the burning feeling. Also let them know if you smoke, drink alcohol, or utilize illegal drugs.
The whole pharmacokinetic properties of phenazopyridine have never been determined. You shouldn’t take Pyridium for over two days. Never prolong use of Pyridium past the prescribed time period. Pyridium must always be used with an antibiotic, since Pyridium can’t remove a UTI by itself.
Phenytoin (Phenytoin) – instructions for use, description of the pharmacological action, indications for use, dosage and mode of administration, contraindications, side effects
Characteristics: The white crystalline powder. Practically insoluble in water, soluble in 1% caustic alkali solution.
Mode of action
Pharmacology: Mode of action – antiepileptic, anticonvulsant, anti-arrhythmic, muscle relaxant. It has anticonvulsant activity (without the sedative and hypnotic effect), which is manifested in generalized and partial seizures. In high doses violate the coordination of movements. It has an activating effect on the central nervous system (shortens the period of immobility in the test « despair » and reduces the ptosis caused by reserpine), antiarrhythmic ; heart (reduces the maximum rate of depolarization, increases the threshold of excitability slows conductivity of bundle of His and the Purkinje fibers). Suppresses vestibular reflexes, reduces the symptoms of some forms of Meniere’s syndrome. Affects active and passive transport of sodium and calcium ions through cellular and subcellular membranes of nerve cells. Significantly reduce sodium levels in the neuron, because it reduces the flow by blocking the Na ^ – K ^ – ATPase of the brain and facilitates active transport out of the cell. Changes of calcium – phospholipid interactions in the cell membrane and reduces the active transport of potassium and calcium, inhibits the release of neurotransmitter amino acids (glutamate, aspartate) from the nerve endings than provide anticonvulsant effect. It has the ability to inhibit glutamate receptors. Antiarrhythmic activity is realized through the reduction of central adrenergic effects on the heart, cardiomyocyte membrane stabilization with an increase in their permeability to potassium ions.
inside easily absorbed when taken. The absorption rate is different for different patients, so the time to C_max very variable ; . 3 – 15 hours Associated with 70 – 90% to plasma proteins (in renal failure ; 43%). Free passes gistagematicheskie barriers and rapidly distributed to organs and tissues (including the brain). Less than 5% is excreted in the urine in unchanged form, the remainder is transformed by liver enzymes to inactive metabolites ; mainly glucuronide (excreted by the kidneys) and paraoksifenilnyh derivatives; last partially excreted in bile. T_1 / 2 plasma with a / in the introduction of ; 9 – 14 hours, after oral administration ; 22 -. 28 hours Children (especially during the growth period) is recommended to assign phenytoin in combination with vitamins D and K, as possible development of osteopathy such as rickets, hypocalcemia, blood clotting disorders. With little effect should be further applied phenobarbital or others. Antiepileptic drug. It is used, moreover, in cases of resistance to carbamazepine in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Eliminates (50 ; 90%), supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias caused by an overdose of cardiac glycosides, but is not very effective at supraventricular arrhythmias, etc. origin.. A clear effect was seen in disorders of rhythm during anesthesia, cardiac catheterization, after operations on the heart, ie, when disturbed function of central structures that regulate the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.
Indications for use
Application: Epilepsy (large seizures), prevention of post-traumatic epilepsy and postneyrohirurgicheskoy, ventricular arrhythmias, including intoxication cardiac glycosides, some forms of Meniere’s syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia.
Contraindications: Hypersensitivity, the liver and kidney function, heart failure, cachexia, porphyria.
Restrictions on the use during pregnancy is only assigned for health.
Side effects: Dizziness, agitation, tremor, ataxia, nystagmus, fever, nausea, vomiting, changes in connective tissue (coarsening of facial features, Dupuytren’s contracture), allergic skin reactions (rash, pruritus); long-term use (especially in children) ; dyspepsia, gingival hyperplasia, osteopathy, hypocalcemia, megaloblastic anemia, less ; lymphadenopathy, hirsutism.
Interactions: Quicken biotransformation phenobarbital and carbamazepine, slow (may increase the side effects) ; isoniazid and derivatives thereof, chloramphenicol, coumarin, aspirin, teturam.
Overdose: When blood concentrations in children more than 20 mg / l may develop acute intoxication ; nystagmus, ataxia, mental disorders, joint pain; in more severe cases ; bradycardia, ventricular fibrillation, atrial flutter, asystole, and coma. Treatment is symptomatic (no specific antidote).
Dosage and method of administration
Dosage and administration: Inside, during or after a meal (to avoid irritation of the gastric mucosa). Adults ; 1/2 – 1 tablet. 2 – 3 times a day, the daily dose increased if necessary up to 3 – 4 Table. the maximum daily dose of ; Table 8. Children under 5 years ; 1/4 Table. 2 times per day, 5 – 8 years ; 1/4 Table. 3 – 4 times a day, over 8 years ; 1/2 – 1 tablet. 2 times a day.
Caution: Careful selection of doses (for epilepsy, the concentration in the blood for 7 – 10 days of treatment), since elimination of ; process of saturated and increasing the dose may be accompanied by a disproportionate increase in plasma levels. When expressed adverse events is necessary to reduce the dose or stop the drug.
Other medications and drugs used together and / or instead of the “Phenytoin (Phenytoin)” in the treatment and / or prevention of the following diseases.