Last Updated on February 19, 2017 by Dr.Derek Fhisher
Most popular brand: Famvir
Active ingredient: Famciclovir
Available dosage forms: 500, 250 mg
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Famciclovir general information
These days, the antiviral drugs including acyclovir, famciclovir, valacyclovir are extremely effectual in controlling herpes. There is a variety of choices to handle the virus including medications and ointments. Although there isn’t any cure, there are a couple medications which help keep outbreaks in check. In fact, there’s absolutely no real treatment for a cold sore, but for cold sore remedies, there are several antiviral medications that may be prescribed to heal the infection. Unfortunately, these medications should be taken during a lengthy time period in order to both reduce a good number of outbreaks and also to lessen their severity, but they couldnot provide any kind of permanent solution, outside of suppression.
If you struggle with skin issues, particularly severe scarring, maybe you are considering dermabrasion. There are several treatments to attain freedom from genital herpes and prevent recurring infection. There are quite a few topical creams and ointments that you may use. There are several treatments out there.
Requesting your complete family medical history isn’t uncommon for this sort of procedure. Another decision you might be asked to make is around the kind of anesthetic. Diagnosis may be given by your physician, who can usually tell by studying the blisters. Any shingles treatment is generally geared toward lessening the severity and length of pain.
Herpes infection within the eye is rare but are able to offer lead to blindness, and herpes can occasionally lead to a dangerous infection within the brain. Since people don’t always ask what are the symptoms of genital herpes, consistently make sure you tell everyone you’re intimate with that you’re infected, be sure you always make use of a condom, and steer clear of sex when you’re in the middle of an outbreak. It’s also advisable to hold the sores clean as well as dry and prevent touching them all to avoid transmitting the illness. One essential aspect to think about if you found out that you really have the infection is really to speak to your partner about it.
If you’re still considering dermabrasion in place of anti-aging or wrinkle creams it’s time to start searching for an experienced surgeon. Prior to a physician will even consider dermabrasion, they’ll likely desire to run a couple of tests and go over your health care history. It is optimum to consult your physician to know the ideal medicine that’ll work for your own situation. Hence, you should finish the plan of treatment to get the finest possible outcome. You may be surprised to learn that not everybody is a great candidate for the process.
There are many alternative health remedies that may be used to heal the symptoms, while at the similar time strengthening the entire body’s immune system to stop future attacks. Seeing as there isn’t any cure, it’s a very good concept to attempt to combat these factors whenever possible. Since you might understand clearly, many of these complications may be too severe to ignore. You need to be conscious of the risks involved along with the fact which you have other choices. You may see the difficulties. Reduce strain and anxiety.
Immune system is the secret to a wholesome skin as well as physical condition. Aromatic ointments are also thought to accelerate recovery by increasing circulation in the region and certain tissue reactions. There isn’t any medication accessible that can kill the virus within the nerve cells. Then, excellent medication is accessible for this disease. After you feel an outbreak coming, begin the lysine, other supplements as well as a topical treatment.
Description of the active substance Famciclovir / Famciclovirum.
Formula: C14H19N5O4, chemical name: 2 – [2 – (2 – amino – 9H – purin – 9 – yl) ethyl] – 1,3 – propanediol diacetate (ester)
Mode of action:. antiherpethetical, antiviral
Famciclovir is a prodrug. Famciclovir is transformed in the body into penciclovir inhibits the multiplication of viruses and Varicella zoster, Herpes simplex (types 1 and 2), Epstein – Barr, Cytomegalovirus. In these viruses affected virus thymidine kinase phosphorylates penciclovir cells sequentially to monophosphate and triphosphate, which is a virus-infected cells, 12 hours and inhibits the formation of the viral deoxyribonucleic acid and suppress viral replication. For the culture of cells that are infected with Varicella zoster, intracellular half-life period of penciclovir triphosphate 7 hours; Herpes simplex 1 – 10 hours; Herpes simplex 2 – 20 hours. The content of active substance in the healthy cells does not exceed the minimum concentration defined so penciclovir (at therapeutic concentrations) has no effect on healthy cells. Resistance to penciclovir commonly associated with mutations in the thymidine kinase gene of the virus which leads to disruption or failure of the substrate specificity of the enzyme. Much less resistance to penciclovir is related to changes in the DNA -. Polymerase gene
In the application of famciclovir in immunocompetent patients and patients with reduced immunity for the treatment of herpes zoster, which is caused by the virus Varicella zoster, marked the acceleration of the healing of the mucous membranes and skin. Famciclovir was effective in the treatment of various ophthalmic symptoms, which is caused by the virus Varicella zoster. Famciclovir significantly reduces the duration and severity of post-herpetic neuralgia in patients with herpes zoster. One-day treatment with famciclovir in immunocompetent patients in a dose of 750 mg 2 times per day or 1500 mg 1 time per day contributes to the rapid resolution of the symptoms of recurrent labial herpes, which is caused by the virus Herpes simplex. The use of famciclovir in immunocompetent patients at a dose of 500 mg 2 times a day for 3 days, 125 mg 2 times a day for 5 days, or 1000 mg two times a day for 1 day accelerates the healing of the mucous membranes and skin during recurrent genital herpes which is caused by the virus Herpes simplex. Famciclovir 500 mg 2 times a day for one week effective in the treatment of various manifestations of herpes zoster in patients with reduced immunity due to the infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Infected patients with human immunodeficiency virus famciclovir 500 mg 2 times a day for one week accelerates the healing of skin and mucous membranes for recurrent genital herpes, and also reduces the number of days of viral Herpes simplex. . Not investigated the use of famciclovir in patients with lowered immunity, which is due to other causes
Famciclovir fully and rapidly absorbed in the gastro – intestinal tract. Famciclovir is rapidly and completely converted to the active penciclovir. Penciclovir bioavailability when administered is 77% famciclovir, penciclovir maximum concentration in the blood plasma of famciclovir at doses of 125 mg, 250 mg or 500 mg is reached after 45 minutes and is respectively 0.8, 1.6 and 3.3 ug / ml. In another study, the maximum concentration of penciclovir after oral administration of 250 mg, 500 mg or 1000 mg of famciclovir was 1.5, 3.2 and 5.8 ug / ml, respectively. Increased serum penciclovir is proportional increase of a single dose of famciclovir in the range from 125 to 1000 mg. Systemic bioavailability of penciclovir is independent of meal times. Systemic bioavailability of penciclovir at single dose of famciclovir and the separation of the daily dose into two or three doses are the same, indicating that no accumulation of penciclovir on repeated applications of famciclovir. Since proteins plasma famciclovir, penciclovir and 6 – deoxy – predecessor bind less than 20%. The half-life of penciclovir blood plasma at a final phase at the reception of single and repeated doses of about 2 h. Famciclovir is derived mainly from the urine in the form of penciclovir and 6 – deoxy – predecessor. Unchanged famciclovir is detectable in urine.
Between the degree of renal function and a reduction in plasma clearance, renal clearance of penciclovir clearance rate from plasma indicated a linear relationship when receiving single and repeated doses of famciclovir. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the use of famciclovir in patients with severely impaired renal function have not been studied
In patients with mild and moderate impairment of hepatic function no increase in the area under the concentration values -. Penciclovir time. In patients with severely impaired hepatic function The pharmacokinetics of penciclovir have not been studied. Transformation of famciclovir to penciclovir in these patients may be impaired, leading to lower levels of penciclovir in the serum and blood, and the effectiveness of the drug
In patients aged 65 to 70 years there has been increase in the mean area under the curve concentration -. Penciclovir time around and 40% decrease in its renal clearance by about 20% when compared to patients younger than 65 years. These features of the pharmacokinetics of penciclovir may partly be due to age-related changes in renal function in patients older than 65 years
Paul patient has no significant effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of famciclovir.; There are minor differences in the clearance of penciclovir in men and women.
Infections are caused by the virus Varicella zoster (shingles), including ophthalmoherpes, reducing the risk of and the duration of postherpetic neuralgia; infections, which are caused by the virus Herpes simplex I and II (labial and genital herpes) – treatment of the primary infection, prevention and treatment of exacerbations of chronic infection; infections that are caused by viruses Herpes simplex I and II (labial and genital) Varicella zoster in patients with reduced immunity.
How to use and dose of famciclovir
Famciclovir is taken by mouth, with or without food. The dosage, frequency and duration of use of famciclovir depend on indications, renal function, state immunity, the effectiveness of treatment
For infections that are caused by the virus Herpes simplex (genital or labial herpes), in patients with normal immunity:. Recurrent labial herpes: 750 mg 2 times a day for 1 day or 1500 mg once a day for one day; primary genital herpes infection: The recommended dosage is 250 mg three times a day for 5 days; recurrent genital herpes: The recommended dose is 125 mg two times a day for 5 days, or 1000 mg two times a day for one day or 500 mg once a reuse three doses of 250 mg every 12 hours
For infections. which are caused by the virus herpes simplex (genital or labial herpes), in patients with reduced immunity: the recommended dose is 500 mg 2 times a day for one week
Prevention of exacerbations of recurrent infection, which is caused by the virus herpes simplex (suppressive treatment. ): 250 mg 2 times a day. The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the pathology. Recommended assessment of possible changes of the disease in one year. Patients who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus, the effective dose is 500 mg 2 times a day.
For infections that are caused by the virus Varicella zoster (shingles) in patients with normal immunity recommended dose is 500 mg 3 times a day during one week; Use this method reduces the duration of postherpetic neuralgia. In the acute phase of the disease to resolve the cutaneous manifestations of the recommended dose is 500 mg two times daily or 250 mg 3 times a day or 750 mg 1 time per day for one week.
In oftalmogerpese, which is caused by the virus Varicella zoster, in patients with normal immunity recommended dose is 500 mg 3 times a day for one week.
for infections that are caused by the virus Varicella zoster (shingles) in patients with reduced immunity recommended dose is 500 mg 3 times a day within 10 days.
In elderly patients (over 65 years) with normal renal function does not require correction dosing regimen of famciclovir.
For patients with impaired functional state of mild to moderate degrees of hepatic famciclovir does not require dose adjustment.
In patients with impaired renal function is reduced clearance of penciclovir. Therefore, a careful individual correction dosing regimen of famciclovir for the special schemes depending on creatinine clearance, indications, immune status.
Treatment should begin as soon as possible, as soon as the first symptoms of disease (itching, tingling, burning sensation).
Genital herpes is a disease that is sexually transmitted. At the risk of recurrence of infection increases. In the presence of clinical manifestations of genital herpes Patients should avoid sexual intercourse, even with early antiviral therapy. When suppressive treatment with antiviral drugs the frequency spread of viral infection is greatly reduced, but there is a theoretical risk of transmission of infection. Therefore, during sexual intercourse patients should take appropriate protective measures.
During treatment with famciclovir you must be careful when performing potentially hazardous activities that require attention and speed of mental and motor reactions (including means of transport management, work with machinery), and the development of dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, or other disorders of the nervous system, should refrain from such activities.
Hypersensitivity (including hypersensitivity to penciclovir), pregnancy, breast-feeding.
Restrictions on the use
Violation of renal function and / or liver.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
The safety of famciclovir in human pregnancy and lactation has not been studied. It is unknown whether famciclovir is released and / or penciclovir in breast milk in humans. Using famciclovir during pregnancy and breast-feeding period is contraindicated, except in cases where the expected effect of treatment for the mother above the possible risk to the fetus or child.
In experimental studies have not revealed teratogenic and embryotoxic action of famciclovir and penciclovir. In studies on rats who received famciclovir inside, it found that penciclovir passes into breast milk.
Famciclovir has no pronounced effect on semen analysis, sperm motility or morphology of a person. The experimental model was decreased fertility in male rats who received famciclovir at a dose of 500 mg / kg body weight. In female rats were observed pronounced decline in fertility.
Side effects of famciclovir
the circulatory system and blood (hemostasis, blood formation): palpitations, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia
The nervous system and sensory organs:. headache, dizziness, confusion , hallucinations, drowsiness
Digestive system:. nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, cholestatic jaundice, disturbances in liver function
Allergic reactions, and skin. subcutaneous tissue: a rash, itching, fever, allergic reactions, urticaria, angioedema (swelling of the eyelids, face, throat, periorbital), severe skin reactions (including Stevens – Johnson multiforme exudative erythema, syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (toxic epidermal necrolysis)), leukocytoclastic (allergic) vasculitis.
famciclovir Interaction with other substances
There were no clinically significant changes in the parameters of penciclovir pharmacokinetics following a single use (500 mg) from the field of application of antacids (aluminum or magnesium hydroxide) or in patients who received up to this therapy (multiple dose), cimetidine, allopurinol, zidovudine , theophylline, promethazine. With a single application of famciclovir (500 mg), together with emtricitabine or zidovudine showed no changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of penciclovir, emtricitabine, zidovudine, a metabolite of zidovudine (AZT glucuronide). Repeated or single use of famciclovir (500 mg 3 times daily) along with digoxin, no changes were observed pharmacokinetic parameters of digoxin and penciclovir.
During the experimental studies famciclovir had no inducing effect on cytochrome P450 system, and are not inhibited CYP3A4 isoenzyme .
Probenecid and other drugs that affect renal secretion, increase penciclovir content in serum. To prevent the development of toxic reactions and the possible reduction of the dose necessary to control patients receiving famciclovir in conjunction with probenecid
Since the conversion of the inactive metabolite, 6 -. Dezoksipentsiklovira, which is formed by deacetylation of famciclovir to penciclovir is catalyzed by aldehyde oxidase, it is possible to develop interaction using famciclovir simultaneously with drugs that are metabolized by this enzyme or its activity is inhibited. When used in conjunction with famciclovir promethazine and cimetidine which are inhibitors of aldehyde, there was no evidence of penciclovir reduce the formation of famciclovir. But when the joint application of famciclovir and raloxifene (a potent inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase in vitro) may reduce the formation of penciclovir and famciclovir decrease the effectiveness of famciclovir. An assessment of the clinical efficacy of the antiviral treatment when used with raloxifene. Since famciclovir is a weak inhibitor of aldehyde, it is possible to effect the parameters of pharmacokinetics of drugs which are metabolized by the participation of the enzyme.
About famciclovir overdose are only limited data. Failure to comply with the recommendations to reduce the dose of famciclovir with regard renal function in patients with kidney disease is rarely observed cases of acute renal failure. With an overdose of famciclovir you must symptomatic and supportive treatment. Penciclovir, which is the active metabolite of famciclovir, is displayed during hemodialysis. After dialysis for 4 hourly concentration in serum penciclovir reduced by 75%.
Trading names of drugs with working substance famciclovir
Minaker® Famatsivir Famvir®
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