Last Updated on February 19, 2017 by Dr.Derek Fhisher
Most popular brand: Vitamin B12
Active ingredient: Methylcobalamin
Available dosage forms: 500, 750, 1500 mg
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Methylcobalamin (Methyl B – 12) (Methyl B – 12), 5000 mg, 60 tabs
Manufacturer Methylcobalamin (Methyl B – 12):. NOW Foods, USA
Product form methylcobalamin: Tablets for resorption by 60 pcs. packaged. Vegetarian formula.
Composition 1 tablet of methylcobalamin:
Methylcobalamin (Vitamin B – 12) 5 mg (5,000 mcg)
Folic Acid 400 mcg
Other ingredients: Fructose, sorbitol, cellulose, citric acid, stearic acid and magnesium stearate (vegetable source), flavorings.
What is the methyl – B – 12
There are several types of vitamin B – 12 (cyanocobalamin, adenosyl cobalamin, oksikobalamin), but Methyl B – 12 is the most important, as it stimulates the biological paths that provide energy for the brain. B – 12 helps the cell in a process known as methylation. The methylation is necessary for the synthesis of DNA and RNA, regulation of the immune system, the removal of heavy metals and toxins from organism, and production of functioning proteins. Lack of vitamin B – 12 causes significant difficulties in the reproduction of cells and the functioning of the brain and body. Through methylation are all cells in our body.
Methylcobalamin is coenzyme of vitamin B – 12, necessary to maintain a healthy nervous system, and metabolic using fats , carbohydrates and proteins.
For the discovery of the structure of vitamin B – 12 English biochemist Dorothy Crowfoot – Hodgkin was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Physiological methylcobalamin function
• Methylcobalamin -. Active coenzyme form of vitamin B – 12. which is formed in the body of cobalamin. In this form, it is important for the metabolic reactions. which resulted in the generated energy. required each cell of the body, the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.
• Methylcobalamin it is important for DNA synthesis during cell division and therefore is especially important for fast proliferating (dividing, proliferating) cells such as blood cells, bone marrow, oral cavity and gastro – intestinal tract. It is necessary for the formation, recovery and maturation of red blood cells, as well as to maintain a frequently updated cell populations (eg, the epithelium).
• Like Growth Factor stimulates the function of the bone marrow. that is necessary for normal erythropoiesis .
• Methylcobalamin is involved in a number of biochemical reactions that provide vital functions of the body -to synthesis of nucleic . acids, protein metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates,
• lipid of the entire group of cobalamin only methyl B – 12 has the ability to to activate the formation of methionine from homocysteine in conjunction with folic acid supports a healthy physiological levels of homocysteine in the blood, thereby maintaining the health of the cardio – vascular system. At deficiency of these vitamins increases the level of total homocysteine.
• Participates in the synthesis myelin . Unlike cyanocobalamin, which works well to prevent anemia, methylcobalamin influences the processes in the nervous system. Methylcobalamin – neurologically active form of vitamin B – 12. It promotes the synthesis of phospholipids (lecithin) – the main component of lipid membranes, and thus It increases myelination of neurons. Methyl B – 12 is also required for the production of lipoprotein in myelin tissue. He is responsible for myelin synthesis and lipid composition of cerebrosides and phospholipids . Because of these properties helps to regenerate neurons and nerve trunks in their mechanical and toxic damage.
• Methyl B – 12 has anabolic action, increasing physical performance
• Methylcobalamin is required for division. and growth cells. It is a growth factor
• Methyl B -. 12 is involved in the production of glutathione – the main substance of antioxidant protection and detoxification of heavy metals and other substances. Activates the work glutathione system .
• Has a hepatoprotective action.
• Methylcobalamin convert folate to its active form. Therefore, vitamin insufficiency B – 12 may develop megaloblastic anemia caused by folic acid deficiency, since retard its inactive form of DNA synthesis, resulting in formation of large immature erythrocytes which are not capable of carrying oxygen and divide.
• At diseases of peripheral neuropathy reduces pain and vegetative disorders, helps to restore motor functions
• Methyl B -. 12 significantly improves the cognitive function.
Methylcobalamin is a means of metabolic and therapy is required under the following conditions and diseases:
• Degenerative processes in the myelin sheath of the peripheral nerves, the spinal cord and the brain: Multiple Sclerosis , neuropathy (including diabetic, alcoholic), radicular syndrome, sciatica, lumbago, intercostal neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, facial nerve paresis.
• Delayed mental and physical development.
• Depression, psychosis, dementia , Alzheimer’s disease.
• Hepatitis (including toxic), cirrhosis, fatty liver
• shock syndrome: gastritis, pancreatitis, with – m Zollinger – Ellison syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, intestinal malabsorption. .
• Diseases of the skin and mucous membranes: aphthous stomatitis, glossitis, dermatitis, eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, photodermatosis.
• Poorly healing wounds and fractures.
• chronic fatigue syndrome.
• Herpes zoster
• Adrenal insufficiency.
• Heavy metal poisoning.
• Weight loss, anorexia.
• Autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, etc.
• Angina pectoris, hypertension, atherosclerosis.
• Disturbances in the immune system.
• Premature aging.
• Methylcobalamin shown vegans.
• In order to improve physical performance (including sports).
Dosage and administration: to take 1 tablet a day, dissolving in the mouth until completely dissolved. The duration of treatment is determined individually and depends on the severity and characteristics of the disease (an average of 40 – 45 days). If necessary, repeat treatments. In sports medicine, the dosage is 5 – 10 mg 1 time per day for about three weeks. When genetic disorders of metabolism of vitamin B – 12 he medications administered in very high doses – 1,000 – 2,000 mg a day, even the children of the first months of life
When neuropathy caused by cobalamin deficiency, clinical improvement from admission methylcobalamin observed even in the absence of anemia symptoms. .
The toxicity of high doses was not found. If you receive excessive excess methylcobalamin excreted from the body. methylcobalamin effect far exceeds the effect of cobalamin.
The side effects. Allergic reactions are rare. Sometimes it may be nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, tachycardia, agitation. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity. Erythremia, polycythemia, acute thromboembolic disease, tumors.
Interaction with other drugs. With simultaneous use of folic acid improves absorption, assimilation and effectiveness of methylcobalamin.
How the body gets vitamin B – 12
No one species of animals or plants are not able to synthesize vitamin B – 12. It is a vitamin that is synthesized by intestinal microflora of humans and animals. However, the amount synthesized in the human vitamin C – 12 does not provide need and an additional amount of the body gets from food
Vitamin B -. 12 is found only in animal foods – liver, meat, kidney, egg yolks, oysters, fish, milk, cheese, where it is bound to proteins. In dairy products the amount thereof is small. In human milk vitamin C – 12 contained in the form methylcobalamin, because in this form it is in human plasma. In cow’s milk contained in the form of adenosyl – and hydroxocobalamin. In plant foods vitamin B – 12 is practically absent. Because vitamin B – 12 is found primarily in animal products, strict vegetarians are at risk of deficiency of vitamin B – 12.
The metabolism of vitamin B -. 12
In the process of cooking, as well as in the stomach of vitamin B – 12 is released from the protein and in the free state forms a complex with gastromukoproteinom (intrinsic factor) , produced by the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa. Factor Kastla binds vitamin B – 12 and protects it from destruction by enzymes, and is a carrier of vitamin B – 12 to the ileum, where it contributes to the absorption of the active. Thus vitamin B – 12 enters the cell and an inner factor released. Maximum absorption occurs after 8 – 12 hours after administration of physiological doses and does not depend on its concentration in the blood
Vitamin B -. 12 deposited primarily in the liver, is somewhat smaller – in the kidney, spleen and muscle. The liver activates folate folinic transition in which stimulates the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow. Stocks of cobalamin in the body account for about 2 – 5 mg, and its metabolism is very slow. Half-life in the liver cobalamin is about 12 months.
It is deduced with bile in an amount of 0.5 to 8mkg per day. In the intestine, more than 75% of the reabsorbed . those. it is characterized by enteropechenochnaya circulation. The urine excreted to 0.25 micrograms per day. Thus enteropechenochnaya slow circulation and help maintain urinary cobalamins in the body. Therefore, for the development of vitamin A deficiency, even at extremely low it enters the body, it takes a lot of time – about 5 – 6 years.
The liver converts a small amount of cyanocobalamin into methylcobalamin, but lesions of the nervous system for the recovery of neurons and the myelin sheath that protects and peripheral nerves, needed higher doses of methylcobalamin.
Symptoms of vitamin B – 12
• At deficiency of vitamin B – 12 is synthesized by defective DNA present in every cell. Maximal changes developed in proliferating (dividing) of bone marrow cells, tongue, mouth and gastro – intestinal tract, leading to embryonic development (megaloblastic) type hematopoiesis. As a result, many large immature red blood cell precursors (megaloblasts) formed in the bone marrow. Megaloblasts differ from normal erythrocytes shorter life cycle and early destruction. It is also characteristic of other megaloblastic modified cells, for example, gastro – intestinal tract
• Characteristic common symptoms of anemia (fatigue, shortness of breath, tachycardia, pallor, tinnitus, etc.)..
• Since methylcobalamin deficiency associated changes occurring complex degenerate character in the myelin sheath of the peripheral nerves, spinal cord and brain from – for infringements of synthesis of fatty acids and the synthesis of myelin disorders. There are numbness or tingling in the extremities, reduced vibration sensitivity, muscle atrophy, polyneuritis and incoordination.
• There are also mental disorders (anxiety, confusion, depression, psychosis, confusion, dementia).
• There are changes in the gastrointestinal tract (atrophic glossitis, hepatosplenomegaly, anorexia, intestinal malabsorption), and skin changes (hyperpigmentation, purpura, and vitiligo).
The causes of vitamin B – 12
The daily requirement for vitamin B – 12 for an adult is 3-5 mcg
All the causes of beriberi in -. 12 can be divided into 3 groups: 1) insufficient intake of it from food, fasting or abstinence from animal food (vegetarian); 2) malabsorption of cobalamin, is often associated with failure Kastla factor; 3) genetic inborn errors of metabolism of cobalamin.
Malabsorption occurs in chronic pancreatitis, Crohn’s disease after resection of the stomach or a large part of the small intestine, severe gastritis with low acidity, gastric tumors. In children, deficiency of B – 12 is more common in congenital deficiency or functional inferiority of intrinsic factor, as well as genetically determined defect in enzymes required for the conversion of vitamin B – 12 in coenzyme – methylcobalamin. Among other causes of vitamin B – 12 can be called the increased consumption of vitamin – for “competitive” use it in the gut parasites.
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