Last Updated on September 3, 2021 by Dr.Derek Fhisher
Most popular brand: Albenza
Active ingredient: Albendazole
Available dosage forms: 400 mg
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Albendazole general information
Albendazole is an antiprotozoal and anthelmintic drug from the benzimidazole carbamate group. The drug acts on both intestinal and tissue parasites in the form of eggs, larvae and adult helminths. The effect of the drug on adult parasites appears to be mediated by the inhibition of the enzyme 5-nitroimidazole deaminase. It is used for the treatment of various parasitic infections in humans and animals including schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, ascariasis, roundworms, hookworms, and pinworm infections. Albendazole has also been used as the anthelmintic drug for treatment of helminthiasis, a disease resulting from infection with parasitic worms in mammals including humans. The anthelmintic drug has been shown to have a very good ability to bind to intestinal walls. In addition to this drug, a related compound of benzimidazole, namely, thiabendazole has also been used for the treatment of various parasitic infections in humans and animals. Although the benzimidazole carbamate drugs have been used with some success in the treatment of parasitic infections, the problem of their therapeutic efficacy at certain concentration intervals, e.g., 4 hours, 2 hours, 12 hours, and 1 hour intervals has been a continuing problem. Furthermore, it is well known that the anthelmintic efficacy of the benzimidazole carbamate drugs is markedly reduced if the dosage regimen is too frequent, i.e., greater than six times per day. Therefore, a long-term administration of the anthelmintic is undesirable and the drug is usually prescribed for repeated treatment. Moreover, the benzimidazole carbamate anthelmintic compounds are contraindicated in dogs and cats with severe gastrointestinal disease or conditions. Albendazole and thiabendazole are also metabolized by the host animal to the benzoic acid derivatives. These metabolites of the drug may cause gastrointestinal disturbances and are themselves toxic to the host animal. For these reasons, an efficacious and yet safe and acceptable oral anthelmintic agent having a longer duration of action would be most beneficial in the therapy of parasitic infections. It has now been found that certain imidazolyl benzimidazole ester compounds are orally active as anthelmintics for both nematodes and cestodes, particularly in farm animals, and are long lasting and safe for the host animals. Furthermore, the subject compounds have a longer duration of action than the presently available commercial compounds which suffer from the above noted disadvantages.
Lymphatic filariasis results from parasitic worms, whilst podoconiosis can be a non-parasitic disease. This is a form of cancer that develops primarily within the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes inflamed because of an infection have a tendency to be painful, but those inflamed from cancers are typically painless. Enlarged lymph nodes at a specific site in many cases are related to certain diseases.
Whenever these eggs become ingested by means of a person, pinworm infection occurs. They could infect not only the lungs, but likewise the heart, the brain, the liver, and also the eyes. In that situation, very frequently, segments of tapeworms are passed out within the stool. On the opposite hand, a microscope is necessary to see the pinworm eggs.
Children and pregnant women are at quite a considerable danger of infection. Intestinal infection could be asymptomatic, that is there might be no symptoms whatsoever. Epithelial cells within the urine could possibly be detected through urinalysis. Every now and then, the ureters might also develop inflammation.
Proper hygiene is the sole strategy to protect against a pinworm infection. Consult with a veterinarian with relate to the form of wormer in addition to the most suitable timing for medication. They can be commonly seen in children, however an adult infection is, in addition, not uncommon. Dogs are also prone to receive infected with heartworms which are parasites that are found in the blood vessels as well as heart.
It might take many years for the infection to generate the clinical symptoms. Some cases are still asymptomatic, where there aren’t any symptoms in any way. Consequently, many times the patient may well not show any symptoms whatsoever. So it’s advisable to cure the condition, when you notice the symptoms.
Like the majority of cancers, an individual afflicted by Hodgkin’s lymphoma may or may really not manifest all its symptoms. Some drugs including phenytoin can also lead to lymph node inflammation. They are able to reduce inflammative conditions like redness, swelling and soreness. Surgery is just another treatment option that’s employed to give a long-term solution to patients.
A dog is believed to become a man’s best friend but whether or not it bites, it can provide you with a hell of the time. Furthermore, your dog will definitely lose weight rapidly although it eats well. You must check the stools of your own dog at fixed intervals so you can be certain that it is not infested. Eradicate the earthworms in your community.
The pinworm has become the most popular parasitic worm infestation that’s prevalent in the USA. It is quite dangerous, as it has a tendency to boost the load of parasites within the individual’s bowels. They’re just as powerful and help remove pinworms. The human pinworm Enterobius vermicularis is easily the most standard sort of pinworms.
They generally don’t show any signs of illness until the final minute, therefore it is extremely important to keep your eye on activity level, appetite, and other standard behaviors to decide whether your chinchilla is getting sick. They’re more possible to result in an infection in children than adults. Because of this, it is always preferable to be cautious in regards to taking good care of pets. Aside from this they don’t have some results on the human system.
The expression lymphatic filariasis and elephantiasis are from time to time used interchangeably within the medical literature. Therefore, the appropriate means of treatment will undoubtedly be decided by the vet. The 3rd group is available within the fat layer of the epidermis and induce subcutaneous filariasis. Usually it is a tablespoon twice or thrice per day, but you have to consult with a vet before choosing such doses.
It’s important to take enough amino acids within our daily life. It might come within the form of the liquid or chewable pill. The whole life cycle happens within the gastrointestinal tract. The anus becomes quite itchy, especially at night subsequent to the individual is asleep.
There are lots of varieties of worms that may live within the body of the dog, but the most frequent ones are roundworms, hookworm, tapeworm, and ringworm. Pyrantel pamoate is just another medicine which is often used in both humans together with dogs, but, the dosages vary. Whipworms are also one of the sorts of roundworms in the shape of the whip. In the instance of Giardia, there’sn’t a safe approach to treat it at home, so you like to be sure you have a vet that is certainly knowledgeable with chinchillas in case you start to see the signs.
Pinworms are small white worms which are fairly simple to see. Likewise, the larvae could get transferred within the food or drinks, also. Chinchillas are generally pretty healthy animals, yet at the identical time, they’re also very fragile. It is suitable for kids over the age of a couple of years and grownups.
Anthelmintic agent wide spectrum of action; benzimidazole carbamate derivative. Albendazole is similar in structure to mebendazole. It causes irreversible disturbance of glucose utilization in the body helminth and inhibits the synthesis of ATP.
When administered albendazole is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, in an unmodified form is not detected in plasma bioavailability is low. Eating fat increases the absorption and C max 5 times. The time to reach C max albendazole sulfoxide is 2 – 5 hours Plasma protein binding -. 70%, enters into significant quantities in the bile, the liver, spinal fluid, urine, and the wall of the cyst fluid of worms. It is metabolized in the liver with the formation of the primary metabolite (albendazole sulfoxide) having anthelmintic activity. Albendazole sulfoxide is metabolized to albendazole sulfone (secondary metabolite) and other oxidation products.
T 1/2 albendazole sulfoxide – 8 -. 12 hours is derived from bile through the intestines in the form of the active metabolite albendazole sulfoxide, only a small amount excreted in the urine. If it affects the liver bioavailability is increased, and the C max albendazole sulfoxide is increased by 2 times, and T 1/2 is extended. Is inducer of CYP1A isozymes in cells of the human liver.
When administered a single dose of 400 mg. Frequency and duration of use depends on the evidence and the treatment regimen.
From the digestive tract and liver: stomatitis, dry mouth, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea, constipation.
Hepatobiliary disorders: increased activity of liver enzymes, jaundice, hepatitis, hepatocellular disorders.
From the side of the cardiovascular system: increased blood pressure, tachycardia.
From the side of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: insomnia or drowsiness, headache, dizziness, confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, convulsions, decreased visual acuity.
From the blood and lymphatic system: leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, including aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia. Patients with liver disease, including hepatic echinococcosis, are prone to bone marrow suppression.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: skin rashes, hyperemia, polymorphic erythema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, reverse alopecia, pruritus, urticaria, pemphigus, dermatitis, edema.
On the part of the kidneys and urinary system: impaired renal function, acute renal failure, proteinuria.
Common disorders: bone pain, throat pain, fever, weakness.
Possible hypersensitivity, including anaphylactic / anaphylactoid reactions.
From the digestive system: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, increase in liver transaminases.
From the CNS: headache, dizziness, meningeal symptoms.
From the hematopoietic system: leukopenia, granulocytopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, itching.
From the urinary system: renal dysfunction, acute renal failure.
Other: pyrexia, increased blood pressure, alopecia.
Pregnancy, hypersensitivity to albendazole, lactation (breastfeeding).
Pregnancy and breast-feeding
Albendazole is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding).
For women of childbearing age in the period of treatment is recommended to use non-hormonal methods of contraception. It is not known whether allocated albendazole and its active metabolite in breast milk.
The experimental research in animals have shown teratogenicity albendazole.
Be wary appoint patients with albendazole suppression of bone marrow hematopoiesis, liver failure, cirrhosis of the liver, retinal eye disease.
It should be the cessation of therapy with the development of leukopenia. When neurocysticercosis with the defeat of eyes before treatment is necessary retinal examination (increased risk of worsening of retinal pathology of the eye). Patients receiving high doses, should be monitored carefully, with constant monitoring of the state of the blood and liver functions.
In an application with dexamethasone, praziquantel, may increase concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide in plasma.
Found an increased concentration of albendazole sulfoxide in bile and hydatid cysts in the content, while the use of albendazole and cimetidine, which can improve the efficiency of treatment of echinococcosis.
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